Istanbul – one of the capitals of the Orient. This city of diversity is as primitive as it is magnificent and attractive with all the charm and weaknesses, which brings the Muslim world. In historical terms gathered in Istanbul is itself cultural consequences of the Byzantine, Roman and Ottoman empires. Also known as Constantinople, Constantinople, Istanbul is a metropolis and the largest city in the territory of Turkey. Nearly 11 million people live only in the urban area of Istanbul and the whole agglomeration collects about 19 million citizens. Istanbul is situated on two continents, as in eastern Asia and western – in Europe. To the south stretches Marmara (Marmara Sea), and to the north – the Black Sea. Waterway from the Black to the Mediterranean and the Aegean Sea through the Bosphorus and Istanbul. Between the two continents were built two impressive bridges over the Bosphorus itself. Istanbul initially exists under the name of Byzantium as a Thracian settlement. In 330 Emperor Constantine I the Great then chooses Istanbul for a new capital of the Roman Empire. From the late Roman period Istanbul named Constantinople, and later he was a Turkish name Istanbul. In historical annals appears the name Constantinople, which is the Slavic name of the Turkish capital.
The square “Hippodrome” is where are the greatest historical monuments of Istanbul. Here are the spectacular Blue Mosque and Hagia Sophia former church. The name of the square comes from the reign of Emperor Constantine I. Then this place was used for racing horses. You can see more Egyptian obelisk, which was brought here in 390g. the Egyptian temple of Apollo and is considered the most ancient historical monument in Istanbul. The “Hippodrome” are also Serpent Column, Column of Constantine and the Fountain of Wilhelm II, a gift to the people of Istanbul by the German Emperor. One of two magnificent and grand architectural monuments in Istanbul Blue Mosque. This gem of Islamic architecture, known as the Sultan Ahmed Mosque is located in the old city of Istanbul, Department of its three walls facing the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and Golden Horn. Its construction began in 1609 and was completed in 1616 during the reign of Ahmed I. According to local stories of the famous ruler ordered architect Mehmet Aga to create one of the most magnificent mosques ever built. In practice it is true. The architect of the mosque – Mehmed wanted to construct a larger dome than the Hagia Sophia, but for better or worse failed. However, the mosque made a masterpiece of perfection – a perfect proportion of domes, minarets and polukupolite. Visits are allowed here all day, except for prayer times. Allowed both men and women, provided they are decently dressed.
The church Hagia Sophia in Istanbul is located just opposite the Blue Mosque in the old part of town. Sophia is undoubtedly the largest and most impressive monument of the Christian religion. Indeed, Sophia is a former church, later converted into a mosque and now inside you can visit an interesting museum. This is one of the largest covered areas of our planet, which impresses with its architecture. For almost a thousand years until the completion of the cathedral in Seville in 1520, Hagia Sophia was the largest cathedral in the world. The church Hagia Sophia is considered the most impressive monument of Byzantine art. Built during the heyday of Byzantine art in Justinian (527-565), the church is part of the imperial palace complex. Justinian have the Hagia Sophia church’s desire to be greater than the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem and also to demonstrate the superiority of Constantinople over the rest of Christian and pagan world. Inside the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul can see magnificent mosaics of Jesus Christ, Virgin Mary, donor portraits of the Byzantine emperors and their wives. Topkapi Palace or Topkana Saray palace complex is unique. It perches on Cape Seralio which is the eastern end of Old Istanbul. Three sides of the palace “Topkapi” marine waters are surrounded. Located between the Golden Horn and the Marmara Sea “Topkapi” opens amazing views of the Bosphorus. Built on an area of 700,000 square meters, “Topkana” in Istanbul consists of three main parts – Biruni, and enderun harem. The construction of the palace started in 1460 by the conqueror of Istanbul, Sultan Mehmet II and was the residence of the Turkish sultans and his cronies to the middle of XIX century palace in the library of stored 22,000 handwritten books in Arabic, Persian and Turkish but the Slavonic, Greek, Armenian, Latin and even Hungarian.
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